Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Environmental Crisis Of Kenya And The United Nations...

The environmental crisis is the biggest crisis of our time, climate change, scarcity of fresh water and bio diversity loss are just a few of the problems caused by the environmental crisis. National and international organizations try combat the dire effects of the environmental crisis like The Green Belt Movement in Kenya and The United Nations framework on Environmental Change, they create initiatives like sustainable development but they have not succeeded. My essay will introduce my interpretation of the environmental crisis, then follow with the relationship between poverty and affluence discussed by scholars Deborah Sik in, Environment and Development and Maggie Black in, Enter â€Å"Sustainability† and propose, Deborah Sik’s insights on property rights and participatory approaches offer the best explanation for the environmental crisis but Maggie Black’s Resource Based Management for small communities gives better long lasting solutions for the environment al crisis. My interpretation of environmental crisis and why it has grown exponentially. The environmental crisis is the most exigent matter of our time. This is evident by environmental changes today, for example in Enter Sustainability, Maggie Black discusses the probability for water wars due to over extraction and consumption of water (Black). This claim is corroborated by an article by The Smithsonian suggesting that shrink water aquifers captured by NASA are partly to blame for the war inShow MoreRelatedClimate Change Challenges986 Words   |  4 PagesA strong argument among scientists exists that anthropogenic climate change is the greatest contemporary global threat to sustainable development in the 21st Century, and that, the risks associated with climate change will become more severe affecting all aspects of human livelihoods (IPPCC 2014, FAO 2013, Shiferaw et al 2014, UN 2015. The ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and signi ng of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 signified the importance ofRead MoreThe United Nations Environment Assembly1325 Words   |  6 PagesDelegation from Represented by The United States of America The Hudson River Group Position Paper for the United Nations Environment Assembly The topics before the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) are: Combating Illegal Trade in Wildlife; Implementation of the Paris Agreement; and Sustainable Use of the Oceans, Seas, and Marine Resources. The United States of America advocates for responsible stewardship of the environment and will prioritize the protectionRead MoreSocial Change Term Paper2603 Words   |  11 PagesSchool of Continuing and Distance education, Department of Extra-Mural Studies. Evening programme- Nairobi Campus TERM PAPER: Based on experiences from Kenya and elsewhere, discuss why taking development to the people is a fallacy. Presented By: Mwangangi Yvonne Nzisa Student Reg No: L50/76138/2014 Unit Code: LDP 611 Unit Title: Social Change and Community Development Presented To: Prof. David Macharia Group: B A Term Paper Assignment Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the requirementsRead MoreEDA ASSIGNMENT 2 Essay2366 Words   |  10 Pagesï » ¿QUESTION 1 What international events influenced the development of Environmental Education and Education for Sustainability? List the key developments and events in a short 1-page point-form account providing the relevant names of events and dates/ years in which they took place 1) The 1972 United Nations Conference on Human Environment – Stockholm It led directly to the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), which became the first UN agency to have its headquartersRead MoreThe Growth And Development Of A Free Market3553 Words   |  15 PagesINTRODUCTION ‘What development means depends on how the rich nations feel, ‘Environment’ is no exception to this rule’. (Sachs, 1992, p.26) Ever since the 1970s, capitalism has entered into the era of neoliberal development. Simply put, capitalism is an economic system that propagates private and or corporate ownership trough investments. Private decisions, prices, production and distribution of goods are determined by the competition in a free market. All of this in turn decides the path of aforementionedRead MoreEssay about The Global Food Security Crisis2938 Words   |  12 PagesIn 2008 the United Nations declared a global food security crisis, but what exactly is food security? According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, food security â€Å"exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life† (FAO 2011). Based on the definition of food security, food insecurity is then defined as â€Å"a situation thatRead MoreWorld Trade Organi zation - Essay5408 Words   |  22 PagesWORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business. The WTOs predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), was established after  WorldRead MoreThe End Of World War II And Creation Of The United Nations4715 Words   |  19 PagesThe end of World War II and creation of the United Nations (UN) in 1945, set the world on a new evolutionary path. This unique evolution commenced with the United States (US) and the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (USSR) as world powers as a result of their distinctive roles in ending World War II. Their contradicting ideologies as to the basis of this new evolution sparked a cold war bringing fear and great concerns to the masses. Inspite of the intensity of this war, the UN assumed its responsibilitiesRead MoreInternational Business Management Research Paper14582 Words   |  59 PagesOF MANAGERS Postgraduate Diploma in Management INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT The Impact of Fixed Exchange Rates in a Global Economy A Research Project Report on the Relevance of Fixed Exchange Rate Systems A case of World Vision Kenya Student’s Name: Hesbone Nzambuli Kang’e Registration Number: CAM/2006/PGD/KEN/00143 Purpose: Fulfilment of the Requirements of the Postgraduate Diploma in Management Presented to: Cambridge Association of Manger, International ExaminationsRead MoreFinancial Ratio of Airline Industry Average5613 Words   |  23 PagesINSTITUTE OF ACCOUNTANCY ARUSHA IN COLLABORATION WITH COVENTRY UNIVERSITY (UK) ASSIGNMENT 2: KENYA AIRWAYS CASE STUDY MODULE NAME: ORGANIZATION BEHOVIOUR AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT MODULE CODE: LECTURERS: DUE DATE: ARUM62EKM DR ANTHONY OLOMOLAIYE MS HELLEN MESHACK 8th JANUARY 2011 1 Coursework cover sheet – be sure to keep a copy of all work submitted Submit via the coursework at Room No. 20 Administration Building Section A - To be completed by the student – PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Fear And Distrust Two Major Vices Essay - 2106 Words

Fear and Distrust: Two Major Vices in Frankenstein Many readers keep returning to Frankenstein, a science fiction by Mary Shelley, â€Å"to find ways of imaging their deepest fears,† yet I believe, on a bigger proportion, the book also illustrates the deep distrust among human beings, represented by their presumptions about others’ evil characters which are not true (Cantor 231). Admittedly, these two qualities, fear and distrust, often exist together, because fear always produces distrust, presumptions, and thus hatred, but I will discuss them separately. As a result of the two vices, Frankenstein tells Walton a false moral on the former one’s death bed, Avoid ambition, even if it be only the apparently innocent one of distinguishing yourself in science and discoveries. Yet why do I say this? I have myself been blasted in these hopes, yet another may succeed. (Shelley 224) Frankenstein asserts this moral because he himself cannot succeed but has paid a heavy price for his ambition; however, his experience is not any evidence or proof for others’ failures. In this essay, I shall point out the two deadly vices that cause Frankenstein and his family’s final destruction— I shall do this by offering examples, illustrating that we should criticize human fears and condemn our presumptions about others’ characters, which are the real â€Å"monsters† in this novel— without these two evil qualities, success of ambitions may become possible. In the end, I shall also form a comparison betweenShow MoreRelatedEssay about The First World War (WWI)978 Words   |  4 Pagesfirst reason for the eruption of World War I was militarism. Militarism is the act of building up armies for threats against other countries – taking over new territory – and protection from other countries who decide to invade. In the 1900â⠂¬â„¢s, the two strongest countries – Germany and Britain – decided to create a Naval Race. While Germany had a stronger ‘ground’ army, Britain had better naval protection with Dreadknought class ships. Because of this advantage, Germany decided to outdo Britain andRead MoreCommunication Between China And The United States1430 Words   |  6 Pagescenturies. In class, we’ve learned how nationality, politics, economics and international relations have all come into play when discussing communication between the two powers. However, throughout history we’ve seen how it has been an uphill battle for China to maintain a healthy and productive relationship with the United States, and vice-versa. A number of historical events have been accounted for producing numerous generalizations, creating stereotypes and popular opinions. Ultimately, China andRead MoreChristianity Essay808 Words   |  4 Pagesas, â€Å"A major religion, stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus of Nazareth (the Christ, or the Anointed One of God) in the 1st century AD.† (Shelton) It has become the largest of the world’s religions. Yet in Ancient Rome in the first century A.D. they were not welcome. Christians were burned and tortured, and persecuted for just over three hundred years because of their beliefs. Why? We may never fully know, but I believe it was mostly out of fear. Fear of the new, and fear of changeRead MoreThe Crown Heights Riot Of 1991 Essay1273 Words   |  6 Pageseveryone’s assertion. Background information allows us to see that tensions existed in the neighborhood on behalf of both parties; the Hasidic and African-Americans. â€Å"‘Some Jews were afraid to go into black parts of the neighborhood because of fear of getting mugged or shot; some blacks saw Jews as ‘taking over’ Crown Heights and receiving preferential treatment from police and in public housing allocation†™â€ (2). Even before the Crown Heights Riot of 1991, there has been a lineage of earlierRead MoreThe Conflict Between The Rwandan And Tutsi Ethnic Conflict1193 Words   |  5 Pagesand Tutsi to continue, while also becoming an important economic factor to the wealth of other nations. The colonization, genocide, and conflicts in the Congo all contributed to the major issue of racial segregation faced by the modern Hutus. The early colonization of Rwanda by the Germans and Belgians created the major internal conflict between the Hutu and the Tutsi. At the time of the Europeans arrival, Rwanda was made up of 85% Hutu, who were farmers, 14% Tutsi, who were cattle herders, and 1%Read MoreThe Effects of the Cuba Missile Crisis Essay1656 Words   |  7 Pagesdestruction. Because of this many people around this time lived in fear and felt the world was going to end. The effects of the Cuba missile crisis didn’t just affect the two nations its effects also had major effects on the people of these nations, the world, and the countries themselves. These effects only truly made the world change when it was too late. The effects that the Cuba missile crisis left on the people of these nations consisted of fear, panic, and enough paranoia to scary the entire world. ItRead More To What Extent Was Jacksonian Democracy Democratic? Essay1209 Words   |  5 Pagesthe era of the common people, the era of democ racy. Andrew Jackson appealed to the American people because he stood for values many regarded with favor. However democratic Jackson may seem, he was more tyrant-like than any of his predecessors. His major offerings to the nation included majority rule and a popular presidency, however offered no benefits to women, African Americans, nor Native Americans. Jacksonian Democracy was in no way democratic.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Before Jacksons time, voters expected publicRead MoreTheodore Roosevelt And the Rise of America to World Power1443 Words   |  6 PagesWelles, both of Lincoln’s cabinet, and edited a work of scholarly essays by leading historians. Beale was a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin. Beale’s book, â€Å"Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power† covers the major developments, policies, and actions by which the â€Å"Imperialists† helped guide America into world power. It gives insight into the role Roosevelt played in the policies at the turn of the century. Beale gives detail into Roosevelt’s personal diplomacyRead MoreEssay on Conduct Disorder in Adolescents2399 Words   |  10 Pageslife. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders text revision 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR) states that â€Å"the essential feature of Conduct Disorder is a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated†(2000). The DSM-IV-TR goes on to list criteria for conduct disorder as, aggression to people or animals (i.e. forced sexual activity or mugging), destruction of property (i.e. fire setting), deceitfulnessRead MoreWhat Role Did the American Media Play in the Vietnam War1741 Words   |  7 Pagesonly four percent of American newspaper media was devoted to the Afghan War (Hanrahan). The American people had substantially limited information about the war; therefore opinions about it were rather vast—some supported it, while others did not. A major reason for this was the lack of American news reporters in Afghanistan. There were only a handful of American news reporters in Afghanistan at that time and those who were there struggled to get a story. Those travelling with military units constantly

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence And...

Introduction In a study by Mandell and Pherwani (2003), the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and transformational leadership style was examined in order to determine whether EI scores could be used to predict transformational leadership style. In addition, gender differences in the relationship between EI and transformational leadership were examined to determine if there is a significant interaction of gender and emotional intelligence. This research is important, because transformational leadership has been found to be the most effective style of leadership. Therefore, if EI can predict transformational leadership style, it would be useful for organizations to use EI measures in their selection battery for managerial positions and in development of current managers. In the study, transformational leadership was defined as a leadership style that encourages subordinates to look at their work from different viewpoints, motivates employees to promote the organization’s missi on, and develops employee abilities. Emotional intelligence was defined as an ability that involves self-monitoring of one’s own feelings and emotions, as well as, monitoring the emotions of others in order to guide one’s behaviors and make decisions. Consistent with the previous research, Mandell and Pherwani (2003) found that EI scores do significantly predict transformational leadership style. However, they found no significant relationship between gender and EI while predictingShow MoreRelatedLeadership Style And Emotional Intelligence1734 Words   |  7 PagesLeadership Style and Emotional Intelligence Many organizations and groups are established each day, but only a few realize their dreams. Although many factors are responsible for the differences in success and failure of organizations, leadership is a prime factor. Leaders play a significant role in determining the success or failure of an organization. Management studies have attempted to understand leadership including defining the skills that a leader requires to become successful. EmotionalRead MoreTransformational Leadership And The Employee Creativity1125 Words   |  5 PagesDhan (2015) conducted a quantitative study to examine the role of transformational leadership in predicting employee creativity. The inquiry prompted the study, â€Å"What is the role of transformational leadership in predicting employee creativity?† Data collection was done using survey questionnaires, using 372 respondents. Measurements entailed a short version of the MLQ to assess employee’s perceptions of transformational le adership. A four-item scale adopted by Tierney was used to measure employeeRead MoreManagers Emotional Intelligence Effect On Followers Performance1577 Words   |  7 PagesManager’s Emotional Intelligence Effect on Follower’s Performance Job Satisfaction. Research has shown that leaders who have high levels of emotional intelligence are able to increase the job satisfaction of their workers leading to increase performance. In a study done by Sy, Tram, and O’Hara (2006) of 187 restaurant workers, in which 62 were managers, they investigated the relationship between employees’ emotional intelligence, their manager’s emotional intelligence, employees’ job satisfactionRead MoreEmotional Intelligence And Leadership Training1424 Words   |  6 Pagescompanies are investing millions into leadership training in the aim of finding the right leaders for success, however it has been observed that too much importance has been given to IQ and leaders haven t been performing up to expectations. (Doe, Ndinguri and Phipps 2015). With the realisation of IQ not being the sole factor for success researchers have directed more focus into Emotional Intelligence, in fact Doe, Ndinguri and Phipps (2015) argue t hat emotional intelligence may be the determining factorRead MoreThe Role Of Transactional Versus Transformational Leadership1320 Words   |  6 Pages As the study of leadership has expanded over the past decades, a general shift in the paradigm of leadership style has begun to occur. The male dominated workforce has started to give way to a far more diversified workplace, with increasing numbers of women and minorities in leadership positions. This shift, resultantly, is causing a move away from the traditional leadership styles, with more focus given to contemporary leadership theories. For example, in a recent TED Talk Roselinde Torres discussedRead MoreDoes Charisma Be Taught? Tests Of Two Interventions840 Words   |  4 Pages 374-396. Antonakis et al starts off research by posing a question. â€Å"Can leadership, and in particular charisma, be taught? The authors set out to prove in fact that training can training managers a specific set of charismatic leadership tactics not only improves their charisma, but their effectiveness as leaders. Charismatic leadership is defined as by Antonakis et al as being a sub element of transformational leadership. In the first study researchers assigned 34 middle managers from a SwissRead MoreThe Impact Of Transformational Leadership On Employee Performance And Their Core Job Characteristics1285 Words   |  6 PagesBurns, the man who first introduced the idea of Transformational leadership defined it as follows, â€Å"leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation.† Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper Row. Summary: The author of this article is Bacha, Eliane she is a well-respected professor of HRM OB at SKEMA business school. This article is entitled, â€Å"The relationship between transformational leadership, task performance and job characteristics† (BurnsRead MoreTransformational Leadership : Transformational Leaders1745 Words   |  7 PagesEffective leadership requires skills to adapt to the demands of fresh situations. Leadership flexibility offers opportunities to hone unique approaches, as circumstances demand. Leaders can hang onto core styles while embracing principles found in harmonizing theories. Theories of particular interest are transformational leadership and servant leadership, among others. These approaches are synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Moreover, they overlap with other beneficial leadership conceptsRead MoreEmotional Intelligence And Its Effect On The Job Satisfaction Of Employees Essay1645 Words   |  7 PagesEmotional intelligence relates to an individual’s ability to manage their emotions, and is shown to have positive outcomes for an organisation. Manager emotional intelligence is thought to have an effect on the job satisfaction of employees, which could be due to behaviour or leadership styles. It is inconclusive which of these reasons, if any, are the cause of the positive correlation due to the lack of overwhelming support for any one cause and the biases of the studies. Emotional intelligenceRead MoreThe Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence And Leadership Style That Differentiate Effective Leaders9113 Words   |  37 PagesThe purpose of this quantitative correlation study is to examine the degree and extent of a relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style that differentiate effective leaders. A brief review of the literature was conducted using the following resources, Northcentral University Library (NCU Roadrunner), Google Scholar, Galileo, and ProQuest. Several searches included peer-reviewed publications and academic journals such as the International Journal of Business Management, Journal

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Lord Of The Flies Vs Alive Essay free essay sample

, Research Paper Lord of the Fliess and Alive! In life we are all faced with state of affairss cheapnesss may be hard to cover with, but for most of us, seeking to last in hostile conditions is non one of them. In the novel The Lord of the Flies and in the film Alive! , seeking to last in hostile conditions was a similar job that the characters had to confront in order to last. We will write a custom essay sample on Lord Of The Flies Vs Alive Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The two scene, characters, and subject of these two plants have many similarities and many differences that cause these characters to respond otherwise towards each other and towards their state of affairs. What the characters did and how they reacted to one another throughout their ordeal proved this. The scene is a major issue that played an of import axial rotation in both of the literary plants. The scene is what helped organize the attitudes of some of the characters, and it was a guideline in what the characters had to make in order to last. In The Lord of the Flies the male childs were stranded in Eden with everything that they needed to last. They were able to play all twenty-four hours all twenty-four hours and non worry about how they were traveling to last, what they were traveling to eat, or even if they were traveling to be rescued. When the male childs lost sight of deliverance the society that had been created crumbled and accordingly they lost the common end that kept the male childs civilized and together. This was a black event because they lost hope and without hope, they became barbarian like. In the movie Alive! the male childs were all stranded in the Andes Mountains and they had to work together in order to last. Through the snowstorms, deficiency of nutrient and the decease of their fellow teammates the male childs banded together with the common end of deliverance and endurance. There was no nutrient so the characters had to fall back to cannibalism in order to last. In our society that is the lowest signifier of savageness, nevertheless the demand for endurance is what drove these male childs to make such unmentionable act. Through the difficult times the male childs worked together, and get the better of the adversities, or died. The rough conditions were what kept the male childs together and in bend kept them alive. The scene of these two plants was similar in the fact that they were stranded with no manner of being rescued on their ain. However, through the characters actions the scene besides set boundaries and limitations on what the male child could and could non make. In some ways, the two narratives had really similar characters. Nando and Jack had many similar features, such as their sense of escapade. They both had a manner of deriving power. At the beginning of the film Alive! Antonio, the rugger # 8217 ; s squad captain, had power over the group because of his leading back at place, in the same manner Ralph was voted head because he was the first one to happen the conch. Nando gained power by maintaining the of hope of acquiring out of the state of affairs that they were in by themselves, hence diminishing fright among the work forces and presenting the thought of cannibalism. Jack was besides concerned with nutrient and throughout the hunting, he gained more power. This besides helped to quiet the boy’s frights. They could kill hogs Jack told the male childs that he could protect them from any beastie that tried to assail them every bit long as he was in charge. These characters reacted in much of the same manner to their state of affairss, and through their actions they related to one another. In both narratives, the subject was the same, get the better ofing adversities in order to last and endurance of the fittest. In The Lord of the Flies, many adversities had to be overcome for the male childs to last. They were immature with no grownups on the island, they had no shelter from the heat, or from the rain and nutrient was at that place but meat was scarce. They overcame the deficiency of grownups through electing leaders and handling them, as they would handle an grownup. They built shelters and set together a runing party to acquire meat. They overcame these obstructions and throughout this, they were able to last and finally be rescued. In the movie Alive! the characters besides had to get the better of some of the same obstructions. They had to hold shelter, maintain warm, and acquire nutrient. They used what was left of the plane as shelter, and huddled together and found all the jumpers to maintain warm and they did the unmentionable act of eating each other to rema in alive. That is genuinely fall backing to whatever it takes to last. Both narratives besides show the subject of endurance of the fittest. In The Lord of the Flies those who were considered weak by Jack were either beaten or killed. So you had to be strong in order to last. In Alive! if you were non strong you would decease from the rough conditions or from hurt that took topographic point upon the clang. Those are the two chief subjects of these narratives. In both plants, the characters faced endurance. In The Lord of the Flies, endurance meant populating with Jack, and his huntsmans, in a really hostile environment. In Alive! the conditions, clime and nutrient were the chief issues that the characters had to cover with on the mountain. Both narratives show and prove that the strongest will last all odds. The Lord of the Fliess and Alive! have many similarities. They are both based on endurance. They show that in order to make your end, which in this instance was deliverance, you had to hold the will, and the chief characters in both of these narratives did hold the will to last. This was proven through the characters actions and how they reacted to one another in their state of affairs. 33c

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Keydy Vasquez Cerrato Essays (483 words) - , Term Papers

Keydy Vasquez Cerrato Mr. Parker U.S History January 23, 2017 World War 1 DBQ Essay "Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation, but only the vindication of right, of which we are only a single champion." (Wilson) the First World War was one of the most destructive and deadliest wars of all time. Several countries participated in the war. When the se major European nations went to war in 1914, the majority of Americans wanted nothing to do with the raging war. In April 2, 1917, Woodrow Wilson asked Congress for a decla ration of war to make the world "safe for democracy." However, there is sti ll heated and debated argument going on: Could America's involvement in World War One been avoided by Wilson? There are several reasons why President Wilson could not avoid getting America involve in WW1. The Germans attacked boats holding Americans civilians. America was threatened by German and the allies would have lost. For the first few years of WW1, America made sure to stay out of the way. However when the German's attacked and destroyed the Lusitania and other ships, carrying American civilian . Many were in an uproar about the deaths and knew something had to be done to stop the Germans. The German promised that they would not sink unarmed passenger ships without warning, however, twice they promised, and didn't keep it. Americans thought that if these killings were to continue, then the US would have to intervene. In January of 1917, Germany was suffering from supply shortages do to blo ckades taking action. Germany had their foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman send a telegram to Mexico, stating that if the U.S. declared war on Germany, that Mexico should do the same to the U.S. the tele gram was intercepted and given to American authorities. Although most leaders believed that Mexico would go to war, Americans were shocked with the publication of the telegram and wanted to enter the war. When the war broke out in the summer of 1914, it was like any other war. However when Germany started its campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare, it was clear that Germany and its allies pleaded for help from America. Without America sending in fresh troops and military supplies to the French and The British, The Allies would more than likely have fallen and be under the control of Germany. In conclusion, American involvement in World War 1 couldn't have been avoided by President Wilson. All these event lead to America being involved in the World War. The Lusitania, the Zimmerman Note and the Allies all happened, and no matter how hard America tried to not get involved, it eventually happened and they just got caught in the heat of the moment.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Definition and Examples of Language Change

Definition and Examples of Language Change Language change is the phenomenon by which permanent alterations are made in the features and the use of a language over time. All natural languages change, and language change affects all areas of language use. Types of language change include sound changes, lexical changes, semantic changes, and syntactic changes. The branch of linguistics that is expressly concerned with changes in a language (or in languages) over time is historical linguistics (also known as diachronic linguistics). Examples and Observations For centuries people have speculated about the causes of language change. The problem is not one of thinking up possible causes, but of deciding which to take seriously...Even when we have eliminated the lunatic fringe theories, we are left with an enormous number of possible causes to take into consideration. Part of the problem is that there are several different causative factors at work, not only in language as a whole but also in any one change...We can begin by dividing proposed causes of change into two broad categories. On the one hand, there are external sociolinguistic factors - that is, social factors outside the language system. On the other hand, there are internal psycholinguistic ones - that is, linguistic and psychological factors which reside in the structure of the language and the minds of the speakers.(Jean Aitchison, Language Change: Progress or Decay? 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2001)Words on the Way OutAmidst and amongst are all rather formal, almost affected, now, and are more usually encountered in high-brow writing, less usually in speech. This suggests that these forms are on the way out. They will probably bite the dust, just as betwixt and erst have done...(Kate Burridge, Gift of the Gob: Morsels of English Language History. HarperCollins Australia, 2011) Anthropological Perspective on Language ChangeThere are many factors influencing the rate at which language changes, including the attitudes of the speakers toward borrowing and change. When most members of a speech community value novelty, for example, their language will change more quickly. When most members of a speech community value stability, then their language will change more slowly. When a particular pronunciation or word or grammatical form or turn of phrase is regarded as more desirable, or marks its users as more important or powerful, then it will be adopted and imitated more rapidly than otherwise...The important thing to remember about change is that, as long as people are using a language, that language will undergo some change.(Harriet Joseph Ottenheimer, The Anthropology of Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology, 2nd ed. Wadsworth, 2009)AÂ  Prescriptivist Perspective on Language ChangeI see no absolute Necessity why any Language would be perpetually changing.(Jonathan Swift, Proposal for Correcting, Improving, and Ascertaining the English Tongue, 1712) Sporadic and Systematic Changes in LanguageChanges in language may be systematic or sporadic. The addition of a vocabulary item to name a new product, for example, is a sporadic change that has little impact on the rest of the lexicon. Even some phonological changes are sporadic. For instance, many speakers of English pronounce the word catch to rhyme with wretch rather than hatch...Systematic changes, as the term suggests, affect an entire system or subsystem of the language... A conditioned systematic change is brought about by context or environment, whether linguistic or extralinguistic. For many speakers of English, the short e vowel (as in bet) has, in some words, been replaced by a short i vowel (as in bit), For these speakers, pin and pen, him and hem are homophones (words pronounced the same). This change is conditioned because it occurs only in the context of a following m or n; pig and peg, hill and hell, middle and meddle are not pronounced alike for these speakers.(C.M. Millward, A Biography of the English Language, 2nd ed. Harcourt Brace, 1996) The Wave Model of Language Change[T]he distribution of regional language features may be viewed as the result of language change through geographical space over time. A change is initiated at one locale at a given point in time and spreads outward from that point in progressive stages so that earlier changes reach the outlying areas later. This model of language change is referred to as the wave model ...(Walt Wolfram and Natalie Schilling-Estes, American English: Dialects and Variation. Blackwell, 1998)Geoffrey Chaucer on Changes in the Forme of SpeecheYe knowe ek that in forme of speeche is chaungeWithinne a thousand yeer, and wordes thoThat hadden pris, now wonder nyce and straungeUs thinketh hem, and yet thei spake hem so,And spedde as wel in love as men now do;Ek for to wynnen love in sondry ages,In sondry londes, sondry ben usages.[You know also that in (the) form of speech (there) is changeWithin a thousand years, and words thenThat had value, now wonderfully curious and stran ge(To) us they seem, and yet they spoke them so,And succeeded as well in love as men now do;Also to win love in sundry ages,In sundry lands, (there) are many usages.](Geoffrey Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde, late 14th century. Translation by Roger Lass in Phonology and Morphology. A History of the English Language, edited by Richard M. Hogg and David Denison. Cambridge University Press, 2008)

Friday, February 21, 2020

Barrack Obama's Presidential Campaign in 2008 and Web 2.0 Essay

Barrack Obama's Presidential Campaign in 2008 and Web 2.0 - Essay Example The concept Politics 2.0 can be identified as the ideology that social networking and e-participation technologies can be used for modernising the public in seeking, reacting, and influencing political campaigns. As Daniel Nations points out, clearly understanding the communication techniques is the centre of a politician’s arsenal, whereas anticipating the future communication techniques can be the furtive sword for them to win the battle; and â€Å"for Franklin D. Roosevelt, it was radio, for John F. Kennedy, it was television, and for Barack Obama, it was social media† (about.com, n.d.). Politics  2.0 Today the society is highly fused with the network of computers and it has further changed the way one interacts with the Internet. In other words, the time people spent on Internet has significantly changed, and instead of gathering information dumped to them, they reach out to the rest of the world to listen what others have to say on any subject. In the opinion of Kreiss and Howard (2010), Obama has changed the face of politics in America, and as he used Web 2.0 in his presidential campaign, he gave the American people a voice in politics (1032-35). The ideology of politics 2.0 was first used during the political operatives of 2004 US presidential elections, when the enthusiasts of the Draft Clark campaign and of Vermont Governor Howard Dean made use of it. The most recent intervention of the politics 2.0 was seen during the trials of Obama’s campaign. Before launching his campaign, Barack Obama had a firm view that a fundamental understanding of communication had always been the prime tool of a successful politician’s arsenal and having a clear idea on the future of communication is the secret weapon that fights the battle (FC Barcelona). Obama's own social network had turned out to stage a protest of his attitude on a federal wiretapping bill, proving that social networking can cut both ways. Obama was able to shift the campai gn from the classical methods into the digital age by exploiting the advantages of Web 2.0, utilising it as the prime podium of his presidential campaign. He was efficient in turning the Web 2.0 into a major force behind his campaign, diversifying it through YouTube, blogging, and Social networking. Barack Obama and the ‘New Media’ The official website The official website, BarakObama.com was designed efficiently that any user could navigate through the site easily. The presentation and the layout of the website were surprisingly eye-catching with lots of information and continuous updates, which included links to articles, videos and gallery of Barak Obama (BarakObama.com). Moreover, the website did not remain just as a presentation, instead it was a multifaceted platform where the viewers could make calls in supporting Obama, volunteer programmes, or donate to the fundraising events. In the same way, the ‘My.BarakObama.Com’ section of the website enhanced a special platform for the youngsters who are already on the social sites, allowing them to create their own blogs or groups within the website with access to photos and videos. Social Media Social media can be considered as the living environment or necessary tool for the youth, where a lot of marketing strategies seem working. From the records (Guido, 2011), the social media network created by the campaign team contained about 3,500,000 friends for Obama, besides having the huge online subscriptions on