Friday, February 21, 2020

Barrack Obama's Presidential Campaign in 2008 and Web 2.0 Essay

Barrack Obama's Presidential Campaign in 2008 and Web 2.0 - Essay Example The concept Politics 2.0 can be identified as the ideology that social networking and e-participation technologies can be used for modernising the public in seeking, reacting, and influencing political campaigns. As Daniel Nations points out, clearly understanding the communication techniques is the centre of a politician’s arsenal, whereas anticipating the future communication techniques can be the furtive sword for them to win the battle; and â€Å"for Franklin D. Roosevelt, it was radio, for John F. Kennedy, it was television, and for Barack Obama, it was social media† (about.com, n.d.). Politics  2.0 Today the society is highly fused with the network of computers and it has further changed the way one interacts with the Internet. In other words, the time people spent on Internet has significantly changed, and instead of gathering information dumped to them, they reach out to the rest of the world to listen what others have to say on any subject. In the opinion of Kreiss and Howard (2010), Obama has changed the face of politics in America, and as he used Web 2.0 in his presidential campaign, he gave the American people a voice in politics (1032-35). The ideology of politics 2.0 was first used during the political operatives of 2004 US presidential elections, when the enthusiasts of the Draft Clark campaign and of Vermont Governor Howard Dean made use of it. The most recent intervention of the politics 2.0 was seen during the trials of Obama’s campaign. Before launching his campaign, Barack Obama had a firm view that a fundamental understanding of communication had always been the prime tool of a successful politician’s arsenal and having a clear idea on the future of communication is the secret weapon that fights the battle (FC Barcelona). Obama's own social network had turned out to stage a protest of his attitude on a federal wiretapping bill, proving that social networking can cut both ways. Obama was able to shift the campai gn from the classical methods into the digital age by exploiting the advantages of Web 2.0, utilising it as the prime podium of his presidential campaign. He was efficient in turning the Web 2.0 into a major force behind his campaign, diversifying it through YouTube, blogging, and Social networking. Barack Obama and the ‘New Media’ The official website The official website, BarakObama.com was designed efficiently that any user could navigate through the site easily. The presentation and the layout of the website were surprisingly eye-catching with lots of information and continuous updates, which included links to articles, videos and gallery of Barak Obama (BarakObama.com). Moreover, the website did not remain just as a presentation, instead it was a multifaceted platform where the viewers could make calls in supporting Obama, volunteer programmes, or donate to the fundraising events. In the same way, the ‘My.BarakObama.Com’ section of the website enhanced a special platform for the youngsters who are already on the social sites, allowing them to create their own blogs or groups within the website with access to photos and videos. Social Media Social media can be considered as the living environment or necessary tool for the youth, where a lot of marketing strategies seem working. From the records (Guido, 2011), the social media network created by the campaign team contained about 3,500,000 friends for Obama, besides having the huge online subscriptions on

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Sheesha smoking Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Sheesha smoking - Dissertation Example It also makes an attempt to reveal the factors that work behind Shisha smoking and encourage this within the society. Also the paper vouches for legal regulation towards Shisha smoking and tries to increase the awareness level of the common people regarding the same. Introduction There is a universal consensus on the dangers posed by tobacco in cigarette. It has been established by many studies that cigarette smoking is indeed injurious to health. Cigarette smoking has been directly linked to many cases of lung cancer. Studies have shown cancerous diseases such as lung cancer is strongly linked to smoking cigarettes and causes around 87% of death worldwide, (Parkin et al 2005). Therefore, it is not wrong to assume smoking tobacco related diseases have reached an epidemic scale. The scale and the problems associated with smoking have always been noted in epidemiological research (Siegel, 2007). However, the social phenomenon of its severity has recently been highlighted due to several reasons, mainly due to increase in mortality rates. Unfortunately, not all forms of tobacco smoking have been subjected to the same regulations (policies) and health campaigns as cigarette smoking. Unlike cigarette smokers, Shisha smokers are unaware of the ill effects of smoking Shisha. ... The frequent instances of minors below 18 years indulging in Shisha smoking might be a reflection of this lack in awareness. (Barton, Chassin and Sherman, 1982) Furthermore smoking cigarettes outweighs the other forms of smoking by quite a large margin, that has also resulted in less concern and awareness towards other forms of smoking such as Shisha.(Chaaya,2004) According to the World Health Organization the health risk associated with Shisha smoking is even worse than that of cigarette, yet it is not adequately highlighted (WHO, 2005). This lack of acknowledgement from the authorities regarding the health hazard Shisha poses makes the case even worse. Till date there are no health warnings or regulations on Shisha, even though it presents dangerous implications. Lack of regulations or warning reinstate the false idea Shisha smokers have about the effects of Shisha on health (Feng et al, 2007) A description of the Shisha is as follows: It consists of a vase filled with water, to wh ich a vertical metal pipe that has a clay pot on top is attached. The tobacco substances are placed and burned with charcoal in the clay pot. The smoke is then filtered through water and inhaled through the hose. (see appendix 1) Shisha is an ancient form of smoking tobacco. It was traditionally widely used in Africa and Asia (Chattopadhyay, 2000). It is increasingly evolving world wide, especially in Europe and America. The factors that are contributing to this dramatic spread of Shisha might be due to the global integration and the myth and perception of Shisha being less harmful. Contrary to this ancient traditional philosophy, Shisha contains numerous toxic substance and gases known to cause lung

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Eutrophication Process Steps

Eutrophication Process Steps Eutrophication is world-wide environmental issue environmental problems that are related to high concentration nutrients. It is the process due to increment of algae productivity which affects adversely aquatic life and also human and animal health. It is mainly influenced by humankind activities that include agriculture and sewage effluent due to creating high amount of nutrients. The mechanism of eutrophication is briefly described in Figure 1. Large amount of nutrient input to the water body is the main effect and high level of phytoplankton biomass results that lead to algal bloom. Consumption of oxygen close the bottom of the water body is the result. The other effects of the process can be divided two categories that are related to: nutrient dispersion, phytoplankton growth Nitrogen and phosphorus are two main nutrients for aquatic life. In addition, A silica is also necessary for the diatoms. Nutrient concentration in the water body changes during eutrophication. The nutrient is the limiting factor, if it is not be available for algae develop. The sufficient factor to determine limiting factor is the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus compounds in the water body is an important factor for control mechanism. (Table 1). Phosphorus is generally limiting factor for phytoplankton in fresh waters. For large marine areas frequently have nitrogen as the limiting nutrient, especially in summer. Intermediate areas such as river plumes are often phosphorus-limited during spring,but may turn to silica or nitrogen limitation in summer. The enrichment of water by nutrients can be of natural origin but it is often dramatically increased by human activities. This occurs almost everywhere in the world. There are three main sources of anthropic nutrient input: runoff, erosion and leaching from fertilized agricultural areas, and sewage from cities and industrial wastewater. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (from animal breeding and combustion gases) can also be important. According to the European Environment Agency, the main source of nitrogen pollutants is run-off from agricultural land, whereas most phosphorus pollution comes from households and industry, including phosphorus- based detergents. The rapid increase in industrial production and in in-house consumption during the 20th century has resulted in greater volumes of nutrient-rich wastewater. Although there has been recently a better management of nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural practices, saturation of soils with phosphorus can be noted in some areas where spreading of excessive manure from animal husbandry occurs. Nutrient removal in sewage treatment plants and promotion of phosphorus-free detergents are vital to minimize the impact of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution on Europes water bodies7. Since 1980, nitrate concentrations in major EU  rivers have generally remained constant. There is no  evidence that reduced application of nitrogen fertilizers  to agricultural land has resulted in lower nitrate  concentrations in rivers. Indeed, concentrations in  some regions in Europe, such as Brittany, or Poitou in  France, and Catalunya in Spain, are still increasing. More detailed information on nitrates are to be found  in the companion pamphlet in this series nitrate and  health and in the E.C. report mentioned in (6). wastewater treatment and less phosphorus in household  detergents. Phosphorus release from industry  has also fallen sharply (Figure 3) whereas phosphorus  from agriculture, despite a reduction in the consumption  of phosphate fertilizers in the EU, remains an  important source of phosphorus pollution.   Unfortunately, due to the main role of nitrogen in the  eutrophication process in summer in the coastal zone,  the reduction in the discharge of phosphorus from  rivers into the sea has not been visible, except in very  specific sites. In most cases the phosphorus released  by the sediments into the open sea is sufficient to  allow eutrophication to occur, although external inputs have sharply decreased. In fact, only the Dutch coast  has benefited from the improvement of the water of  the Rhine, everywhere else the situation is stable or  has worsened. Some activities can lead to an increase in adverse  eutrophication and, although they are very specific,  they should be noted: Aquaculture development: Expansion of aquaculture  contributes to eutrophication by the discharge of  unused animal food and excreta of fish into the  water; The transportation of exotic species: Mainly via the  ballasts of big ships, toxic algae, cyanobacteria and  nuisance weeds can be carried from endemic areas  to uncontaminated ones. In these new environments  they may find a favourable habitat for their diffusion  and overgrowth, stimulated by nutrients availability; Reservoirs in arid lands: The construction of large  reservoirs to store and manage water has been  taking place all over the world. These dams are built  in order to allow the collection of drainage waters  through huge hydrographic basins. Erosion leads to  the enrichment of the waters of these reservoirs by  nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen Factors supporting the development  of eutrophication Besides nutrient inputs, the first condition supporting  eutrophication development is purely physical it is  the containment (time of renewal) of the water. The  containment of water can be physical, such as in a  lake or even in a slow river that works as a batch  (upstream waters do not mix with downstream  waters), or it can be dynamic.   The notion of dynamic containment is mostly relevant  for marine areas. Geological features such as the  shape of the bottom of the sea, the shape of the  shores, physical conditions such as streams, or large  turbulent areas, and tidal movements, allow some  large marine areas to be really contained, exhibiting  very little water renewal. This is known as dynamic  containment. In other cases, due to tidal effects, and/or streams,  some areas that would seem to be prone to containment  see their waters regularly renewed and are not  contained at all and are therefore very unlikely to  become eutrophic. Other physical factors influence eutrophication of  water bodies. Thermal stratification of stagnant water  bodies (such as lakes and reservoirs), temperature  and light influence the development of aquatic algae. Increased light and temperature conditions during  spring and summer explain why eutrophication is a  phenomenon that occurs mainly during these seasons. Eutrophication itself affects the penetration of  light through the water body because of the shadow  effect coming from the development of algae and  other living organisms and this reduces photosynthesis in deep water layers, and aquatic grass and  weeds bottom development. Main consequences  of eutrophication The major consequence of eutrophication concerns  the availability of oxygen. Plants, through photosynthesis,  produce oxygen in daylight. On the contrary, in  darkness all animals and plants, as well as aerobic  microorganisms and decomposing dead organisms,  respire and consume oxygen. These two competitive  processes are dependent on the development of the  biomass. In the case of severe biomass accumulation,  the process of oxidation of the organic matter that has  formed into sediment at the bottom of the water body  will consume all the available oxygen. Even the oxygen  contained in sulphates (SO4  2-) will be used by  some specific bacteria. This will lead to the release of  sulphur (S2-) that will immediately capture the free oxygen  still present in the upper layers. Thus, the water  body will loose all its oxygen and all life will disappear.  This is when the very specific smell of rotten eggs, originating  mainly from sulphur, will appe ar.   In parallel with these changes in oxygen concentration  other changes in the water environment occur: Changes in algal population: During eutrophication, macroalgae, phytoplankton (diatoms, dinoflagellates,  chlorophytes) and cyanobacteria, which  depend upon nutrients, light, temperature and water  movement, will experience excessive growth. From  a public health point of view, the fact that some of  these organisms can release toxins into the water or  be toxic themselves is important.   Changes in zooplankton, fish and shellfish population: Where eutrophication occurs, this part of the ecosystem is the first to demonstrate changes. Being most sensitive to oxygen availability, these species may die from oxygen limitation or from changes in the chemical composition of the water such as the excessive alkalinity that occurs during intense photosynthesis. Ammonia toxicity in fish for example is much higher in alkaline waters. Effects of eutrophication The effects of eutrophication on the environment may, have deleterious consequences for the health of exposed animal and human populations, through various pathways. Specific health risks appear when fresh water, extracted from eutrophic areas, is used for the production of drinking water. Severe impacts can also occur during animal watering in eutrophic waters. Macroalgae, phytoplankton and cyanobacteria blooms Algae display varying degrees of complexity depending on the organization of their cells. Macroalgae, phytoplankton and cyanobacteria may colonize marine, brackish or fresh waters wherever conditions of light, temperature and nutrients are favourable. Cyanobacteria have been largely studied in fresh water systems, due to their ability to proliferate, to  form massive surface scums, and to produce toxins that have been implicated in animal or human poisoning. Some species of algae may also contain toxins, but incidents where fresh water algae are at the origin  of cases of human or animal illness have very seldom been reported. Coloured toxic tides caused by algal overgrowth have been known to exist for many centuries. In fact the Bible (Exodus, 7: 20-24) states all the water of the Nile river became red as blood and fish which were in the river died. And the river was poisoned and the Egyptians could not drink its waters. Algal blooms were observed in 1638 by fishermen in north west of Iceland. Fjords were reported to be stained blood red and during the night produced a kind of phosphorescence. The fishermen thought that the colours could be due to the blood of fighting whales or to some marine insects or plants (Olafsson and Palmsson, 1772). The first scientific report of domestic animals dying from poisoning as a consequence of drinking water that was affected by a blue/green algae  bloom was in 1878 in lake Alexandrina, Australia. In coastal and estuarine systems, however, where  conditions are less favourable to the proliferation of  cyanobacteria, which need oligo-elements such as iron, toxic algae such as dinoflagellates have been observed and have been at the origin of health  troubles. There is growing evidence that nutrients,  especially nitrogen, favour the duration and frequency  of such toxic blooms, and concentrations of toxin in  the cells. Health effects linked to toxins of cyanobacteria in  fresh waters Some cyanobacteria have the capacity to produce  toxins dangerous to human beings. Toxins can be  found either free in the water where the bloom occurs  or bound to the algal or cyanobacterial cell. When the  cells are young (during the growth phase), 70 to 90%  of the toxins are cell bound, whereas when the cells Cyanobacteria have been largely studied in fresh  water systems, due to their ability to proliferate, to  form massive surface scums, and to produce toxins  that have been implicated in animal or human poisoning. Some species of algae may also contain toxins,  but incidents where fresh water algae are at the origin  of cases of human or animal illness have very seldom  been reported. Coloured toxic tides caused by algal overgrowth have been known to exist for many centuries. In fact the  Bible (Exodus, 7: 20-24) states all the water of the  Nile river became red as blood and fish which were in  the river died. And the river was poisoned and the  Egyptians could not drink its waters. Algal blooms were observed in 1638 by fishermen in  north west of Iceland. Fjords were reported to be stained  blood red and during the night produced a kind of  phosphorescence. The fishermen thought that the  colours could be due to the blood of fighting whales or  to some marine insects or plants (Olafsson and Palmsson,  1772). The first scientific report of domestic animals  dying from poisoning as a consequence of drinking  water that was affected by a blue/green algae  bloom was in 1878 in lake Alexandrina, Australia. In coastal and estuarine systems, however, where  conditions are less favourable to the proliferation of  cyanobacteria, which need oligo-elements such as  iron, toxic algae such as dinoflagellates have been  observed and have been at the origin of health  troubles. There is growing evidence that nutrients,  especially nitrogen, favour the duration and frequency  of such toxic blooms, and concentrations of toxin in  the cells. Health effects linked to toxins of cyanobacteria in  fresh waters Some cyanobacteria have the capacity to produce  toxins dangerous to human beings. Toxins can be  found either free in the water where the bloom occurs  or bound to the algal or cyanobacterial cell. When the  cells are young (during the growth phase), 70 to 90%  of the toxins are cell bound, whereas when the cells fresh waters. People may be exposed to toxins  through the consumption of contaminated drinking  water, direct contact with fresh water or the inhalation  of aerosols. Toxins induce damage in animals and  humans by acting at the molecular level and consequently  affecting cells, tissues and organs (Table 3). The nervous, digestive, respiratory and cutaneous  systems may be affected. Secondary effects can be  observed in numerous organs. Age or physiological  conditions of the affected individual may determine the  severity of the symptoms. A variety of symptoms,  depending on the toxins implicated, are observed  such as fatigue, headache, diarrhoea, vomiting, sore  throat, fever and skin irritations. Cyanotoxins can be classified into three groups: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Hepatotoxins. These are the most frequently observed cyanotoxins.  Experiments using mice indicate that they cause liver  injury and can lead to death from liver haemorrhage  and cardiac failure within a few hours of exposure at  acute doses. Chronic exposure induces liver injury  and promotes the growth of tumours. Questions remain concerning the effects of repeated  exposures to low levels of toxins. Animal experiments  have shown liver injury from repeated oral exposure to  microcystins, the most frequently observed cyanotoxins. It is thought that the high prevalence13 of liver  cancer observed in some areas of China could be due  to the presence of microcystins in water supplies. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Neurotoxins. These are generally less common and act on the nervous  system. In mice and aquatic birds, they cause  rapid death by respiratory arrest, sometimes occurring  in a few minutes. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Dermatotoxins. These induce irritant and allergenic responses in tissues  by simple contact. The global toxicity of a cyanobacterial proliferation is  not constant in time or space, making it difficult to  assess the health threat although some acute poisonings  have led to death (Tables 3 and 4). The release of cyanotoxins in water has been at the  origin of several outbreaks affecting animal or human  health (Case studies p. f12). About 75% of cyanobacterial  blooms are accompanied by toxin production. The presence of cyanobacterial toxins after potabilization  treatment represents a health threat for patients  undergoing renal dialysis treatment. Monitoring of eutrophication   Monitoring is useful if it is performed for a purpose. The main reasons for monitoring a water body for  eutrophication are: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ To prevent the occurence of eutrophication; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Early warning purposes. Public health authorities  need to know when eutrophication is likely to start in  order to allow them to implement preventive actions; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ To know the level of development of the process, and have a precise picture of the quality of the water. This is mostly relevant for water companies, which  have to deal with eutrophic waters; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Research. The reality is that monitoring systems are often multipurpose. Monitoring and management  of cyanobacterial growth in fresh waters  for public health purposes Chorus and Bartram (1999) have proposed the following  monitoring and management scheme to water  treatment plant operators and managers as an alert  level framework. It provides a graduated response to  the onset and progress of a cyanobacteria bloom. This tool initially comes from Australia. Three response  levels are defined: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Vigilance Level is defined by the detection of one colony, or five filaments, of a cyanobacterium in a 1 ml  water sample. When the Vigilance Level is exceeded,  it is recommended that the affected water body is  sampled more frequently at least once a week, so  that potentially rapid changes in cyanobacteria biomass  can be monitored. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Alert Level 1 is initiated when 2,000 cyanobacterial  cells per ml or 0.2 mm3/l biovolume23 or 1 ÃŽÂ ¼g/l chlorophyll- a24 are detected. Alert Level 1 condition  requires an assessment to be made of the total toxin  concentration in the raw water. A consultation should  be held with the health authorities for on-going  assessment of the status of the bloom and of the suitability  of treated water for human consumption. Monitoring  should be conducted at least once per week. It may also be appropriate at this time to issue advisory notices to the public through the media or other means. Government departments or interested authorities or those with legal responsibilities should also be contacted, as should organizations that treat or care for members of the public with special needs. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Alert Level 2 is initiated when 100,000 cells per ml or 10-mm3/l biovolume or 50 ÃŽÂ ¼g/l chlorophyll-a are detected, with the presence of toxins confirmed by chemical or bioassay techniques. This density of cells corresponds to an established, toxic bloom with high biomass and possibly also localized scums. In this situation there is a need for effective water treatment systems and an assessment of the performance of the system. Hydro-physical measures to reduce cyanobacteria growth may still be attempted. If efficient water treatments are not available (see technical annex), a contingency water supply plan should be activated. In extreme situations, safe drinking water should be supplied to consumers in tanks and bottles. Media releases and contact with consumers should be undertaken via mail of leaflets informing that water may present danger for human consumption but is still suitable for the purposes of washing, laundry and toilet flushing. National water quality monitoring programs Few national water quality monitoring programmes include parameters which indicate eutrophication or a risk of algal or cyanobacterial overgrowth. In Europe, North America, Japan and Australia, local monitoring plans which check the occurrence of toxic species in areas where shellfish or fish are consumed, are implemented. This is based on sampling at strategic points and analysis of phytoplankton and/or shellfish. The frequency of sampling generally depends on the sea- son. Table 6 summarizes the monitoring systems in some EU Member States. They only allow the monitoring of toxic blooms, which are only a part of the eutrophication consequences. Technologies such as satellite imaging can be used to monitor large water bodies. The same technique can be applied to monitor the extent of high chlorophyll-a concentrations reflecting the phytoplankton biomass of the upper layers of the eutrophic area. Possible parameters used for monitoring purposes According to the definition of eutrophication, it is clear that formulae such as an increase of x grams of bottom macrophytes per square meter or y micrograms chlorophyll-a per litre are not suitable to define a threshold, which, when exceeded, will describe eutrophication. Such unique parameter does not exist. Moreover, in order to define the magnitude of eutrophication, two measurements are required: That of the system in its reference conditions, and in its current or predicted future condition. As baseline data for a site is the exception rather than the rule, this makes it difficult to test eutrophication using a case-by-case approach. Nevertheless, as the first signs of adverse eutrophication is a decrease in the oxygen concentration in the lower layers of the water body of stagnant waters, and an increase in pH due to photosynthesis (CO2 depletion), these parameters, together with direct microscopic observations, are likely to be the only ones that can help forecast the likelihood of the start of such a process as long as a model integrating physical conditions, nutrient inputs and biological effects has not been locally validated. Prevention25,26 The causes that drive eutrophication are multiple and the mechanisms involved are complex. Several elements should be considered in order to assess the possible actions aimed at counteracting nutrient enrichment of water supplies. The use of computerised models now allows a better understanding of the role of each factor, and forecasting the efficiency of various curative and preventive measures. The best way to avoid eutrophication is to try to disrupt those mechanisms that are under human control; this clearly means to reduce the input of nutrients into the water basins. Such a control unfortunately does not have a linear effect on the eutrophication intensity. Integrated management should comprise: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Identification of all nutrient sources. Such information can be acquired by studies of the catchment area of the water supply. Knowledge of industrial activities, discharge practices and localization, as well as agricultural practices (fertilizer contribution/plant use and localization of crops) is necessary in order to plan and implement actions aiming at limiting the nutrient enrichment of water. The identification of sewage discharge points, agricultural practices, the nature of the soil, the vegetation, and the interaction between the soil and the water can be of great help in knowing which areas should be targeted. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Knowledge of the hydrodynamics of the water body, particularly the way nutrients are transported, and of the vulnerability of the aquifer, will allow determination of the ways by which the water is enriched with nutrients. Anthropogenic nutrient point sources such as nontreated industrial and domestic wastewater discharge can be minimized by systematic use of wastewater treatments. In sensitive aeras, industries and local authorities should control the level of nutrients in the treated wastewater by the use of specific denitrification or phosphorus removal treatments. Diffuse anthropogenic nutrient sources can be controlled by soil conservation techniques and fertilizer restrictions. Knowledge of the agronomic balance (ratio of fertilizer contribution to plant use) is very relevant to optimize the fertilization practice and to limit the loss of nutrients. Diffuse nutrient losses will be reduced by implementation at farm level of good practices such as: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Fertilization balance, for nitrogen and phosphorus, e.g. adequation of nutrients supply to the needs of the crop with reasonable expected yields, taking into account soil and atmospheric N supply. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Regular soil nutrients analysis, fertilization plans and registers at plot level. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Sufficient manure storage capacities, for spreading of manure at appropriate periods. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Green cover of soils during winter, use of catchcrops in crop rotations. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Unfertilized grass buffer strips (or broad hedges) along watercourses and ditches. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Promotion of permanent grassland, rather than temporary forage crops. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Prevention of erosion of sloping soils. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Precise irrigation management (e.g. drip irrigation, fertilisation, soil moisture control). In coastal areas, improvement in the dispersion of nutrients, either through the multiplication of discharge points or through the changing of their localization, can help to avoid localized high levels of nutrients. Reuse and recycling, in aquaculture and agriculture, of waters rich in nutrients can be optimized in order to avoid discharge into the water body and direct consumption of the nutrients by the local flora and fauna. Water resources are environmental assets and therefore have a price. There are market-based methods to estimate costs and benefits, and these make it possible to use cost- benefit analysis as a useful tool to assess the economic effects of abatement of eutrophication or other pollution problems. Benefits range from higher quality drinking water and reduced health risks (Photo 29) to improved recreational uses (Photo 30). The effects on human health from the lack of sanitation and the chronic effects of toxic algal blooms are two of the many indirect effects resulting from eutrophication. Numerous cost-benefit analyses of pollution abatement have clearly demonstrated that the total costs to society of no pollution reduction is much higher than at least a reasonable pollution reduction. Consequently, it is necessary to examine the prevention of pollution and restoration of water quality in lakes and reservoirs from an economic standpoint. The result of such examinations should be appli ed to assess effluent charges and green taxes. International experience shows that these economic instruments are reasonably effective in improving water quality and solving related water pollution problems. Thus, effective planning and management of lakes and reservoirs depends not only on a sound understanding of these water-bodies as ecological systems but also of their value to people as recreational areas and water resources. In the past, several management strategies were developed and applied to solve problems of decreasing surface and groundwater quality. These were often a response to acute critical situations resulting in increased costs of water. The demand for good quality fresh water was only solved partially and locally; this was because too few resources were allocated too late to solve the problems. Early prevention is by far the cheapest method to avoid later pollution. Eutrophication Management Recognizing that the specific needs of policy-makers and administrators are usually different from those of the strictly technical audience, the primary purpose of this digest is to provide quantitative tools for assessing the state of eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs; to provide a framework for developing cost-effective eutrophication management strategies; to provide a basis upon which strategies can be tailored for each specific case according to the physical, social, institutional, regulatory and economic characteristics of the local area or region; and to provide specific technical guidance and case studies regarding the effective management of eutrophication. The approach presented in this document (Figure 1) also is sufficiently general that it can be applied, with relative little modification, to the assessment of other environmental problems and to the development of effective management strategies for such problems. An approach for achieving the basic objectives stated above consists of the following components, applied approximately in the order presented: identify eutrophication problem and establish management goals; assess the extent of information available about the lake/reservoir; identify available options for management of eutrophication; analyze all costs and expected benefits of alternative management/control options; analyze adequacy of existing institutional and regulatory framework for implementing alternative management strategies; select desired control strategy and distribute summary to interested parties prior to implementation; and provide periodic progress reports on control programme to public and other interested parties. designation of bad (unacceptable) versus good (acceptable) water quality in this digest is based on the specific intended use or uses of the water resource. That is, water quality management goals for a lake or reservoir should be a function of the major purpose(s) for which the water is to be used. Obviously, there are water quality conditions to be avoided because of their interference with water uses. Ideally, for example, a lake or reservoir used as a drinking water supply should have water quality as close to an oligotrophy state as possible, since this would insure that only a minimum amount of pre-treatment would be necessary to yield a water suitable for human consumption. For such a waterbody, the content of phytoplankton (and their metabolic products) in the water should be as low as possible to facilitate this goal. Further, if the water is taken from the bottom waters of a lake during the summer (usually the period of maximum algal growth), it should be free of interferring substances resulting from decomposition of dead algal cells. Eutrophic lakes and reservoirs also could be used as a drinking water supply. However, extensive pre-treatment would be necessary before the water was suitable for human consumption. Some water uses may require no treatment at all, regardless of the existing water quality. Examples are fire-fighting purposes and the transport of commercial goods by ship. Further, in areas with extremely limited water resources, virtually all of the water may be used for various purposes (with or without treatment), regardless of its quality. Therefore, although humans can use water exhibiting a range of water quality, there is a desirable or optimal water quality for virtually any type of water usage. Though it is not quantitative in nature, a summary of intended water uses and the optimal versus minimally-acceptable trophic state for such uses is provided in Table 3. In addition, an example of the values of several commonly measured water quality parameters corresponding to different trophic conditions, based on the international eutrophication study of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1982), is provided in Table 4. Thus, it is possible to identify acce ptable or optimal water quality for given water uses. Given these factors, a prudent approach in setting eutrophication management goals is to determine the minimum water quality and trophic conditions acceptable for the primary use or uses of the lake or reservoir (Table 1), and attempt to manage the water body so that these conditions are achieved. In a given situation, if the primary use or uses of a waterbody is hindered by existing water quality, or else requires water quality or trophic conditions not being met in the waterbody, this signals the need for remedial or control programmes to achieve the necessary in-lake conditions. 21 the problem? The governmental role It is recognized that a range of different forms of government, as well as economic conditions, exist around the world. Consequently it is difficult to provide general guidelines regarding the role of the government in environmental protection efforts that will cover all possible situations. However, virtually all nations also contain some type of civil service infrastructure which, if properly used, can be an effective instrument with which to address governmental concerns. Even so, as noted earlier, not all

Monday, January 20, 2020

Prince William :: essays research papers

Prince William tries to live a normal life, but being royalty makes it just too hard (Morton, Diana: Her True Story, 79). "He is the most fascinating person of 1997," says Walters (Unknown, Facts on Prince William, 1). Prince William lives an active life where he deals with disappointments of the past, but family members help him deal with the future. In Paddington, London William was born at St. Mary's Hospital (Gilmer, The Royal Archive, 1). Prince William Arthur Phillip Louis Mountbatten Windsor (Prince William) was born on the twenty-first of June in 1982 at approximately 9:03 PM (1). When the young boy first arrived, Queen Elizabeth II said at the hospital, "Thank goodness he hasn't ears like his father" (Morton, Diana Her True Story, 79). The birth of this child was glorious for he would one day rule Whales. The title of this prince would be known as either King William 5th of the House of the Windsor or King William 5th of the House of Spencer (Holdon, "Will William ever be King" Newsweek 47). This Prince averaging 6'2", weighing 140-145 pounds, with sandy blonde hair and hazel eyes is everything a girl could dream (Gilmer 1). Of the many hobbies and sports the Prince loves to do, he mostly enjoys shooting, skiing, rafting, rowing on the Thanes River, and swimming (Gilmer 2). Another hobby of William's is painting (2). Many people say he is really good at it (2). Also, in his free time he watches as much TV as possible so that he can stay informed of the world around him (2). This young love is a Cancer although his Birthday is borderline between Gemini and Cancer, but the sun moved into cancer at 5:23 PM United Kingdom Time. Therefore, Since he was born at 9:03 PM that makes him a cancer (Unknown 2, Prince William Fact sheet 2). There are many foods and drinks that William has taken a like to such as pasta, hamburgers, chocolate, venison, fruit salads, poached eggs from hens on his fathers estate, coke, and red wine (Gilmer 2). His Uncle Earl Spencer says that his characters are very different from the public image (Morton 149). "The press have always written up William is the terror and Harry as the rather quiet second son (149). He also has a black Labrador retriever named Widgeon (Unknown 1). Oh and also girls this man is able to marry anyone he chooses as long as his loving grandma approves of her first (Gilmer 2). Not only do you have to go through his grandmother, but also they hold all his mail back so that he

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Feminism and Art Essay

Feminist activity had been a rising concern in the late 1900’s which is based merely off of the emotional significance of personal and psychological reasoning. Rather than reacting on this issue based on historical evidence, the issue is based on immediate needs on the feminist attack. Linda Nochlin, and other important scholars and philosophers explain the psychology, philosophy, sociology, and history of art and the feminist movement pertaining to art. Linda Nochlin was the author of this piece, and used both her own knowledge to write this piece, as well as other scholars and philosophers arguments, injected them into her writing, and elaborated on their ideas and arguments. When pertaining to psychology, the issues mentioned and elaborated on were how women were rejected, which led to their thoughts, feelings, and emotions being affected. Because of this, this changed their way of interpreting things, and their views of things were different from men. From a philosophical stand point, Nochlin refers to John Stuart Mill who says that he suggests that we tend to accept things that come natural to us, or that are natural, like male domination; this means that males dominate over women, and women having no say in anything, accept what is natural because back in the day, male domination was a normal thing to women and was a natural behavior. Thinking about sociology, in society, men had to work and had to be educated. Women on the other hand were not allowed and treated as objects, and stayed home to have children and to continue on the male name. â€Å"In general, women’s experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and certainly the art produced by a group of consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on bodying forth a group of consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminists, if not feminine art. † Historically, women weren’t allowed to be educated unless they were wealthy, or had and greater importance over other women. This is why women didn’t know how to paint because they weren’t allowed to learn how, this is also why there were not so many women artists back then, and if there were, they were not well known. An important question that has been posed multiple times within this piece was, â€Å"Why have there been no great women artists? † 3 3 â€Å"Why have there been no great women artists† is what Linda is arguing. Her argument is that there are no great women artists that compare to all of these great and well-known artists that art historians study. These famous artists studied today are, Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Delacroix, Cezanne, Picasso, Matisse, etc. Linda also states that it is in human nature that men dominate women. It is an instinct that has been created ever since humans walked this earth, and is something that is still being battled today. By answering the question, â€Å"Why have there been no great women artists†, which has been questioned by many, Linda proves her arguments by referring to many who have either answered, or attempted to answer this question. Those who have either done it or attempted it are: John Stuart Mill, Artemisia Gentileschi, and Mary Ellmann. All of these theorists/writers attempted to answer the same exact question by simply reinforcing the negative implications, or by saying that there is a different kind of greatness that exists for women, and also how experiences that women go through in society affects their art, which may mean that they were not accepted by the great viewers, which were men. Men and women have different values and interpretation of art, and to men, women’s art was nothing. When structure of this essay is concerned, it is in fact structured in a number of 4 4 ways which include, historical events, arguments, theories, and facts. The argument is pronounced using different methods, which explains subjects using points from the other scholars and their explanations. Initially, the argument made was intangible, later it becomes clear when Nochlin first talks about the battle against feminism, and how it has been around for years, even decades. Later, she begins to say how feminism caused such emotional, and psychological damage and pain to women for a long period of time. Many reasons why feminism had occurred was explored by Nochlin, and answered the question by John Stuart Mill’s response to male dominancy. Her reasoning for why there were no famous female artists was because of men, and how they overruled women in society; her argument was supported with many arguments written from other writers in the past. At the end of each of her arguments, she ends with the famous question, â€Å"Why have there been no great women artists†, and leaves it to be answered by another writer. Many say it is in male nature to dominate, or maybe women just can’t achieve as much greatness as men. Maybe women paint from their psychological views of things, and this was frowned upon by men; women were not allowed to think, let alone paint about what they were thinking. When comparing known women artists to well known male artists, no woman artist compares to the master of art, Michelangelo. The next division of this essay was â€Å"The Question of the Nudes. † â€Å" We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of individual genius or lack of it, but in the nature of given institutions and what they forbid or encouraged in various classes or group of individuals†, p. 158. Since the 1800’s, nude models were females, and would go to school to help the new and sprouting artists to learn and practice art. Females who wanted to participate and learn to paint the human body were rejected because society did not allow women to look at another female or male nude. Men were allowed to study the female nude because to them, they were objects. However, male nudes (models) were never classified as objects. â€Å"As late as 1893, â€Å"lady† students were not admitted to life drawing at the Royal Academy in London, and even when they were, after that date, the model had to be â€Å"partially draped. † P. 158. Women had very little knowledge in painting and therefore were quite timid because of all the pressure that was placed on them by the society, and most commonly, men. Many of those who studied nude models and produced nude figure drawings later became doctors, and professional artists; once again women were not permitted to become either of those. In order to become a professional artist, however, you needed to be good in literature, and had to have knowledge of many techniques. It was uncommon for women to be educated because school’s had high expectations. There were consequences if a woman wanted to be a painter. If you were a woman painter, and were substantially committed to painting, you were expected to forget about having a future. This included a husband, family, career, etc. This was the case in the 19th century because women â€Å"couldn’t focus† on more than one thing at a time according to men and society, therefore our only options were to become a painter and have no outside life, or forget about being a painter and have a family. Women had come a long way by this time, and women were allowed to play music, sculpt, and draw, but were considered weak, and couldn’t pursue any labor work. One of the great women artists, Maurice Bompard, suffered greatly with her paintings because society classified them as being too sexual, and not serious enough; she struggled greatly to achieve the greatness she deserved. Rosa Bonheur was another well known woman artist, and her success changed the view of society on women artists, but still struggled because of her gender. Her father was a drawing master, so she loved to draw and paint at an early age. Rosa created a new style of painting in the 19th century, and this was to paint in smaller scale. She has the ability to capture naturalism, soul, and individuality, and was well known for her â€Å"Barbizon† landscapes. 6 , 6 The rhetorical method in this piece would be repeating the question, â€Å"Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists†, and this depicts the importance of this issue which has been raised by all of the philosophers, writers, and art historians that have been attempting to answer this question for decades. The tone of voice used in the essay is persuasion, frustration, and even determination, and this makes it easier for the reader to understand and illustrate what exactly the issue is and how important it is. In Nochlin’s â€Å"Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists†, she states the importance of women’s history, and makes women aware of how grateful they should be with everything women are allowed to do today. Because of those many strong women who stood up for what they believed in, women today have equal rights to men, and can pursue any path they so wish to take.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Cultural Assimilation Should Be Viewed As A Positive Or...

By definition, cultural assimilation is â€Å"the process whereby individuals or groups of differing ethnic heritage are absorbed into the dominant culture of a society. The process of assimilating involves taking on the traits of the dominant culture to such a degree that the assimilating group becomes socially indistinguishable from other members of the society.† During this process, ethnic individualities, characteristics, and traits of the minority population can disappear. Unfortunately, this is the opposite of multiculturalism, which stresses the significance of promoting different cultures, ethnicities, and races within a single jurisdiction. While multiculturalism promotes diversity among society, assimilation can and does morphs us into much of the same mold. However, assimilation also opens new doors, opportunities, and experiences to those that may never have experienced them otherwise. Ultimately, assimilation to some degree is seemingly unavoidable, as those from different countries must learn to adapt to their new surroundings. This leads to the question of whether cultural assimilation should be viewed as a positive or negative experience. Should being â€Å"American† require immigrants as well as international students to feel pressured to integrate and conform to the culture? Does this process of integrating come naturally, or is it forced upon them? In short, do we really want immigrants to assimilate? Answering this question on cultural assimilation is importantShow MoreRelatedAssimilation, Amalgamation, And Accommodation989 Words   |  4 Pagesnation, several theories have resulted. This chapter looks at assimilation, amalgamation, and accommodation. The values of the dominant culture includes how those in America should look, speak, and act. However, when these standards are not met by the immigrants it becomes difficult for them to fit in comfortably. On the other hand, diversity allows for greater possibilities and unexpe cted relationships to form. First, assimilation is discussed as immigrants forming within the dominant groups,Read MoreMulticulturalism in the United States Essay examples1463 Words   |  6 Pagesto completely assimilate to and fully embrace American culture. As Norman Podhoretz explains, this is the price of immigration, a â€Å"brutal bargain† for the opportunity of a better life (Podhoretz). Multiculturalism has led to a movement of anti-assimilation, which many Americans feel is in severe contrast to the true concept of their nation. As the sizes of immigrant groups grow, their subcultural patterns and language are sustained, which prevents immigrants from learning English and therefore fromRead MorePhilosphy of Nursing1293 Words   |  6 PagesPHILIOSPHY OF NURSING This philosophy of nursing is assimilation of the author’s beliefs in regards of the metaparadigm through experience and understanding of knowledge. The author looks at the fundamental level, a theory which encompasses all or most theories. Attempts to view the theory as an interplay of energy, while looking at it in an atomic level. With the patient being the nucleus the primary structure and concentration of high energy while health and environment as different valence ringsRead MoreThe Canadian Health Care System1527 Words   |  7 Pagesreceived by people (Guilfoyle 1512), Indigenous Peoples in Canada do not have equal access to the Canadian health care system due to the problems arising from long-standing systemic issues, barriers to access, widely accepted stereotypes, and a lack of cultural safety training. When discussing a minority group that has faced oppression and extensive amount of labelling from others it is important to agree on appropriate and proper terminology that is defined by the individuals themselves. Indigenous PeoplesRead MoreConstruct Developed in Psychometrics to Determine Cognitive Abilities971 Words   |  4 Pages The g factor, or general factor, is a construct developed in psychometrics to determine cognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among various cognitive tasks, which demonstrate an individuals performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimatesRead MoreBlack Americas Naming Practices2725 Words   |  11 PagesBlack America’s naming practices are a cultural standard which combine religious and or spiritual belief, identity at individual, family and community levels and, empowerment, along with internal and external perception. This is true of many cultures but it is especially important for cultures which have been historically and or systematically marginalized. Many of the naming practices are shared across minority and indigenous cultures. Ethnic naming is often intended to convey meaningful messagesRead MoreImpact Of Industrialization On Chinese Culture1372 Words   |  6 Pagesthe area and folks were able to carry out businesses. Modernization of infrastructure promoted the rise in importance of people’s religion (Huang, 2008). Some Buddhist, Taoist or folk temples were able to develop as island-wide pilgrimage sites. It should, however, be realized that during this time, most of the Taiwanese gods had lost their sub-ethnic and locative nature and become more pan-Taiwanese. This was due to the Japanese activities of trying to assimilate the native people into t he JapaneseRead MoreWhat Other Variables Contribute And The Composition Of Racist Ideology? Essay1173 Words   |  5 Pagesvariables contribute to the composition of racist ideology? There are four fundamental constituents: geographical location, educational attainment, age, and gender. First, the geographical location determines a lot on what type of socialization one experiences and it interconnects with every other aforementioned variables. Take southern states of the United States as an example. The southern states, being the former Confederate states, hold a violent history of racial superiority of Blacks by whites.Read MoreEthnographic Research Paper: Latino-American Immigration Experience2627 Words   |  11 PagesThe immigration experience as a Latino-American is as diverse as the manifold cultures that the pan-ethnic identity, Latino, aims to subsume. With regards to the immigration experience, Zavella (1991) lays an emphasis on the notion of social location. The differen ce among Latinos in American society is embedded in their â€Å"social location within the social structure†, in which identity, or one’s sense of self, is emergent from the intersected social spaces formed by class, race/ethnicity, gender, andRead MoreOvercoming Social Exclusion : Stories From High Achieving American Indian Students9581 Words   |  39 Pages Overcoming Social Exclusion: Stories from High-Achieving American Indian Students Eryka Charley Pennsylvania State University Abstract The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the educational experiences of a group of high-achieving American Indian students. Despite strong community value of the importance of obtaining an education, American Indian students struggle to succeed academically, and have the lowest high school graduation rates in the United States (Brayboy

Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Environment Is A System Of Living Things - 1393 Words

An environment is a system of living things. The Earth is our environment. The capacity of our environment to offer space, to reap nutrition and to fund energy are all limited. Food, water and other basic assets are strained by the escalating requests of our persistently developing population. We rely on these limited resources for our survival, yet we are quickly extending our population as though they were infinite. This reality is at the focal point of our environmental issues. Despite the fact that the number of inhabitants on earth has been escalating in a continuous manner since 1400, the most emotional increment has taken place in more recent decades. Overpopulation is a standout amongst the most concerning troubles in present times. It is an â€Å"undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth.† (1) There is a natural point of confinement to the population size that can be reasonably maintained by an environ ment. Overpopulation is the undesirable condition where the amount of the existing human population exceeds this natural limit and eventually devours our planet with the request for more nutrition from less land and water supplies. As the total population develops, enhancing expectations for everyday comforts and improving living standards without destroying the Earth is a global challenge. Our world population is growing at about eighty million people a year, which equates to an average of two-hundred andShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Technology On The Environment1368 Words   |  6 Pages In this current scenario, people exist in technology era as well as they are living the development stage in industry, technology and all other aspects. Scientists continually exposed many accurate inventions which are very helpful to people in their day to day life and it makes their life easy and caused a big turn in everyone’s life. The computer and all other recent technological gadgets are best examples of new technologies. Whereas they have their positive influence on people`s life as a wholeRead MoreWhat Are The 3 And Their Meanings?1402 Words   |  6 Pagesmeasurement, matter and energy and systems (ACARA, 2015). Each of these overarching ideas support the developmental concepts in science understanding strand; science inquiry skills and develop students’ appreciation of science (ACARA, 2015). Patterns, order and organisation †¢ Children recognise patterns in the world around them to identify similarity and difference. †¢ Children classify objects and events into groups such as solid, liquid, gas or living/non-living. †¢ This is developed through observationsRead MoreProperties of Life1038 Words   |  5 PagesHow can we tell if an organism is alive or not? Is a virus , prion, virod, or a rock a living organism? What is life? Biologist have studied what makes organism alive for many years and have come to the conclusion the there are nine characteristics of life. Each characteristic has a property which applies to how and organism is alive. Life characteristics are as follows: order, metabolism, motility, responsiveness, reproduction, development, heredity, evolution, and adaptation. All of the characteristicsRead MoreEarth s Democracy By Vandana Shiva1448 Words   |  6 Pagescontrol the government. The earth economy is a living economy. It is based on sustainable, diverse, pluralistic systems that protect nature and people, are chosen by people, for the benefit of the common good. Earth democracy is a living democracy. It promotes the responsible use and conservation of natural resources through communal ownership. The three basic concepts define earth democracy, they are: living economies, living democracies and living cultures. Shiva explains the privatization of theseRead MoreOrganization as Organism1083 Words   |  5 PagesAbstract Organization as a living organism. This metaphor view Organizations from a Biological point of view. Organizations as living systems environment on which they are dependent on each other to satisfy various needs. When studying and comparing organization with living organism it was determined that organizations share the same concept as of a living organism. An organization needs to have the right environment in order to survive, adapt, surpass turbulence and reproduce; the cycle ofRead MoreThe Effects of the Environment on Children Essay812 Words   |  4 PagesEssay 1: Family Systems Over the past hundred years, psychologists have conducted a vast amount of research on children, their development, and the factors that contribute to their healthy and successful development. Much of this research has focused on the childs behavior as an individual, or on the relationship between the parent and the child, and very little on the child as the product and component of a family system. While focusing on the individual child has its benefits, most behaviorsRead MoreThe 8 Characteristics of Living Things Essay616 Words   |  3 PagesCharacteristics of Living Things Overall in science there are 8 characteristics that can be used to determine whether something is living or non-living. Living things are made of cells, have levels of organization, grow amp; develop, maintain homeostasis, process by metabolism, respond to stimuli, reproduce amp; evolve over time. Yes those are the eight characteristics of a living thing. The first characteristic is that all living things are made of one or more cells. For instance living things are allRead MoreMy View Of Prison Is Broken913 Words   |  4 Pagesimmediately family members were apprehended and transitioned in and out of correctional facilities. When I look back on that time, I realize that my family members revolved in and out of my life. These experiences shaped the way that I view the prison system. My relatives would return from their incarceration and they would describe their experiences as hellish and similar to being buried alive. My uncle John was imprisoned for drug possessions and other charges. However, when he was relinquished fromRead MoreCity vs Country1137 Words   |  5 PagesThere are many differences between living in the city or in a country setting, but the country setting has many more advantages over the city. The air and water quality and other environment factors are improved in the country setting. The school system is saf er and less crowded in a rural setting. The roads are not loaded with traffic and taxis. The country is safer than the city and crime rates are lower. In the country, there is an abundance of trees and vegetation. In the country, there are parksRead MoreEssay on Tom Wolfe’s: O Rotten Gotham1156 Words   |  5 Pagesand inhumane. Humans were compared to rats using the overcrowding, the ways of life, and the filth as examples. From the adrenaline rushes and car horns to helicopter noises and constant overcrowding, New York City is a constant stress causing environment. Dr. Hall, another author presented in the article, saw this overcrowding in the city causing a lot of problems. He states that work takes place in massively congested areas such as small cubicles in offices. This, however, is not just a problem